Keywords: AI in Education (AIED), Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), AI-assisted Learning, Educational Technologies.

This paper reviews current AI systems in education and presents a comprehensive overview and typology of AIED systems. It examines different AI applications in education, their philosophical underpinnings, and identifies challenges that may hinder progress in AI-enhanced education.

Personal observation: The paper’s holistic view of the potential and challenges of AIED provides insights into its pedagogical implications and the future direction of AI in education.

Citation: Holmes, W., & Tuomi, I. (2022). State of the art and practice in AI in education. European Journal of Education, 57, 542–570.

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